Livestock keepers in Kayonza district have raised an alarm over the growing threat posed by tsetse flies originating from Akagera National Park. The pests are becoming a significant concern for their animals, leading to adverse consequences. Several livestock farmers who spoke with The New Times revealed that these tsetse flies are transmitting Nagana to their livestock, resulting in loss of animal lives, increased treatment costs, and decreased milk production. One such farmer, James Ruzindana, said he has lost eight cows to Nagana since 2022. He described the symptoms observed in his animals as extreme fatigue, aching muscles and joints, loss of appetite, and thirst, explaining that he has spent over Rwf 250,000 on treatment so far. Cattle rearing plays a pivotal role in the livelihoods of those residing in proximity to Akagera National Park. Ministry of Agriculture data indicates that the Eastern Province hosts over 10,000 farmlands, with the majority situated near the park. Alphonse Zirimwabagabo, another cattle keeper from Kayonza, lamented that farmers are forced to choose less susceptible cattle breeds, despite their lower productivity. Consequently, milk output has dwindled. He called for support in accessing tools to combat tsetse flies, emphasizing the need for decentralized distribution through sector veterinary officers. Addressing the issue, Dr. Solange Uwituze, Deputy Director General at RAB in charge of Animal and Resource Development, proposed various control measures, including clearing vegetation around grazing areas. She encouraged cattle keepers to use fly control insecticide-treated traps and fences provided at the district level, with each tsetse fly trap costing Rwf 1,000, inclusive of government subsidies. Efforts to combat tsetse flies within Akagera National Park have included the installation of more than 1,000 fly control traps along densely vegetated roads, spanning 300 kilometers since 2013. Fiston Ishimwe, who is in charge of Park and Community Relations at Akagera National Park, revealed that this initiative has reduced tsetse fly-related concerns among visitors, with numbers increasing to 49,000 in 2019. Ishimwe also stressed the importance of controlled bush burning within the park, which has contributed to tsetse fly reduction. He recommended that livestock farmers near the park follow suit and clear their farms of bushes, as tsetse flies can find hiding places there. Ishimwe highlighted the park's ongoing efforts to trap tsetse flies, emphasizing its potential positive impact on cattle-keeping businesses outside the park. Rwanda received validation from the World Health Organization (WHO) in April 2022, confirming the elimination of sleeping sickness as a public health concern. This achievement is significant, as the disease has long hindered Africa's socio-economic development, causing annual losses estimated at US$ 5 billion.