Bacterial, viral or fungal infections arise in the gums and teeth produce acids and toxins that usually erode and cause inflammation of the gums.
The inflammation makes gums swollen, red and spongy that increases the tendency to bleed and weakens the stability of the teeth by recession.
Bleeding gums is more commonly seen in adults, since in case of children, it is mostly due to injury due to improper brushing. In case of adults and elderly, it is often found to be related to a disease.
Females have higher incidences for bleeding gums than males. Marginal gingivitis is most common as bleeding from gums comes usually near the base of the teeth.
Injury or trauma, which may be caused by a blow, insertion of foreign substances, tooth picking, dentures, improper brushing, flossing... It may also get injured from irritation of chemicals and acids in foods, drinks, mouth fresheners, tooth whiteners and medicines.
Disease; conditions can also cause bleeding gums. For example, there could be gum problems or infection of gums, retracted or receded gums, weak and spongy gums. It is also a common incidence of dental problems such as caries, excessive tartar or plaque formation, periodontitis.
Mouth sores can also spread infection to gums to cause bleeding. Blood disorders, bleeding and clotting disorders, deficiency of clotting factors, hemophilia, and leukemia can cause bleeding as well.
Systemic such as liver disorders, kidney disorders, arterial or capillary diseases, diabetes, or heart disorder can also reflect as bleeding gums.
Nutritional and physiological such as vitamin C and K deficiency will lead to bleeding disorders.
Pregnancy and hormonal changes can also cause gums to bleed occasionally, as well as poor oral hygiene, due to infection and weakness.
Medications could also cause bleeding gums, because continuous usage of blood thinners, such as Aspirin, heparin therapy, pain-killers and treatment procedures like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, can also cause bleeding from gums.
Hot food and chemicals can end up burning the gums, further resulting in bleeding. For example, some people still follow the practice of placing pain relieving tablets on the gum adjacent to the painful tooth, which invariably causes burns.
Certain rapidly spreading infections can damage the blood vessels of the gums resulting in bleeding as well.
Everyone who want to prevent bleeding gums should avoid hard and fast brushing, hard diets and snacks which can cause injury such as chips, sour foods and drinks, hot drinks, carbonated acid drinks, sticky chocolates, pain-killers, blood thinners and unnecessary medication.
People should rinse mouth with mouth fresheners often. Tobacco chewing, betel nut chewing and smoking is something that one should also avoid. Take care of plaque deposits by proper cleaning and visiting dentist regularly.
Use soft bristle toothbrushes to brush gently and use vitamin supplements in case of deficiency. Use well-balanced nutritious diet, proper mastication, and brush away the food particles in the mouth after every meal. Oral hygiene and dental health is very important as well.
Try to gargle with salty warm water after every meal.