Nose bleeding or epistaxis is a fairly common problem in children aged 3 to 10 years. The most common cause of nose bleed in a child is dryness of the nasal mucosa, i.e. inner lining of the nose. This occurs due to dry weather, indoor heating and exposure to dust, e.t.c. Recurrent cold as with allergic rhinitis or a deviated nasal septum also leads to dryness. The mucous inside the nose becomes dry and forms a crust, which can bleed. Pricking, scratching, blowing the nose are some activities that precipitate or aggravate the nose bleed.
Apart from this, some trauma, anti clotting drugs like aspirin, congenital bleeding disorders, are some medical conditions that can cause a nose bleed.
There is nothing to be alarmed about a small nose bleed. Whenever it occurs, pinch the nose of the child tight for about 5-10 minutes and flex the head forwards. A little grown up child can be taught to do it by himself, the moment bleeding occurs. Avoid dryness of the nose by applying Vaseline, glycerine or any lubricant inside the nose 2 to 3 times every day. Drinking adequate amount of water is also useful.
However if the nose bleed is very frequent, persistent or heavy bleeding occurs it is better to take the child to the hospital.