A Land Use Master Plan for sustainable development
Message from the Director General Land Centre
“The National Land Use and Development Master Plan, the first of its kind in Rwanda is of great National significance, as it is a fundamental tool in achieving environmental sustainability economic growth and development, and social cohesion. It is aimed at ensuring that there is an optimal use of land in regard to harmony and coexistence among different land owners and users.
Needless to emphasize the importance of land as a finite natural resource and a main factor for production, which, coupled with the fact that Rwanda is a very densely populated country, with intense and constant pressure on land, makes proper planning of land use even more crucial in order for us to achieve Sustainable Development and to solve conflicts of interest arising from various stake holders.
It is imperative to uphold the need of the nation at large in a move to encourage and stimulate a guided development and land plan. It should therefore be noted that Land is a national tool serving the interests of all the citizens.
We are going ahead to develop plans even at the lower level like district in a move to fast track development and encourage land use location based on appropriate mediation of various stakeholders.
We are trying to correct the situation experienced in the past where land development was allowed to proceed without due consideration of its effects on the surrounding to implement its sectoral objectives but these often presented constraints to other sectors or were not coordinated to maximize complementarity.
This plan reflects a move from old methods of conventional planning that were more product-oriented with limited stakeholder interaction to contemporary planning methods that are continuous and more action oriented, with maximum stakeholder participation.
We trust that you will all join hands as Rwandan citizens and all the relevant authorities in owning and ensuring its effective implementation as it is expected and create new impetus in our nation‘s quest to quickly move forward in sustainable growth and development.”
Land is a source of livelihood in different forms to all individuals; Farm, hunting, waterfront, pasture, and recreation, mining, transport, and a host of all activities depend on land.
The Rwandan government has put in place measures to ensure proper management and use of the available land since it has the responsibility to shape and improve the wellbeing and environment of Rwandans.
We must give thought to an increasing variety of economic activities, each with specific needs and impacts; more effective housing, issues of health and safety, institutional and financial sustainability, environmental protection, resource management, and cultural heritage.
These are just a few factors that need to be incorporated in the planning process. At the same time there are calls for greater public participation in decision-making.
For all these issues, land is a prime requisite. Rwanda is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa and land is scarce. It is critically important that it develops an effective planning system to manage, protect and use land (and water) efficiently.
This will lay the foundation for improving the lives of Rwandans today and giving our children the same opportunities for health and prosperity, and an environment as beautiful as the one we share.
As a consequence, the Government has initiated a planning procedure that has resulted in a National Land Use and Development Master Plan. The plan was approved by the cabinet chaired by H.E President Kagame on 19th January 2011.
At the same time a new legislative framework for alignment and harmonization of the new Plan, the provision of updated and accurate mapping material for the country and a nationwide land registration project are put in order, which together will make our nation well equipped to meet future challenges to use and protect our vulnerable environment in a sustainable way.
Functions of the Plan
The preparation of the Plan follows a modern planning approach for land use management. It recognizes it to be a cyclical process rather than focusing on the end results. It stresses the interaction with the stakeholders (councilors, general public, private sector, etc.) meaning planning with the people – not for them.
In the Rwandan context, the Plan utilized modern planning tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS), which has proven to be an effective tool for a wide range of applications.
When combined with other technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Remote Sensing (RS) further provides an enhanced and invaluable tool to use with other databases and spatial information in, various stages of sustainable development planning and management of the environment.
An appropriately utilised GIS is able to present complex relationships in a simple and easily understood manner. The information products of a GIS are very useful to the expert and layman alike.
The Geographic Information System (GIS)
GIS-based land-use planning tools can be used to more thoughtfully design everything from national plans to detailed zoning ordinances. They are also useful for eliciting and enjoining public participation not only in land use planning but also in land use decisions and visioning projects. The basic analytical methods of GIS tools include:
Establishing a benchmark measurement of existing conditions to allow decision makers to see where the problems lie. They can then determine whether a new project will help correct these problems or just make them worse;
Forecasting what will happen if a society continues to grow in the same way, then measuring the impacts – whether positive or negative – of alternative land-use scenarios;
Comparing several alternative land-use scenarios in order to help select a preferred alternative for adoption and implementation;
Evaluating policy decisions after they are implemented to ensure that they are meeting the original objectives.
Land Use Information Based on Existing Sector Data
It should be observed that, despite the preparation of spatial data (the Orthophotos and the National Base Map Portfolio), the objective of the Plan is not a data producer. Its aim is to provide land use information, analysis and proposals based on existing (sector) data. Likewise, to make situation analysis and assessment for future land use development, certain key indicators have to be defined.
Finally, there are directives and guidelines for a sustainable land use development. Due to lack of data, they cannot be analyzed in an optimal way for this the first edition of the Plan. Consequently, reservations are made in the specific context and the respective sector authority, responsible for data provision, is kindly requested to add the statistics and data of the subject in the future.
Planning Instruments to Guide Land Use Development
The Plan is the first of its kind for Rwanda and should be seen as one planning tool (of many) for sustainable (land use) development of the country. To successfully implement the plan, there is need to develop a detailed planning instruments at sub-national level.
The following are some recommendations on how a set of planning instruments from national to local levels will work together to fulfill national land use objectives:
National Land Use Development Plan - The nation-wide Plan is intended to project and detail national development policies as they apply to the country
Integrated District Development Plan (IDDP)-
The District Development Plans shall be main route through which the national land use plan is operationalised at district level. It will convey the spatial dimensions of the traditional district development plan.
Urban Development Plan (UDP)- The UDP
will serve as a framework for the planning and management of the development of the prioritized urban settlements located within the district
Action Area Plan (AAP)- The AAP is the implementation instrument regarding planned changes of urban land and water use
Building Permit and Building Control- The importance of proper handling of Development/Building Permits and enforcement through robust Building Control measures should not be forgotten.
The Plan’s brilliant Visions for Year 2020
The citizens of Rwanda are proud of their country and they believe in a promising future. Rwanda is a leader in social welfare. All citizens control their economic needs, enabling them to enjoy a stable, secure and prosperous environment.
The citizens of Rwanda are engaged in fruitful activities. There is a high employment rate and good work ethics. Rwanda is an internationally connected country, integrated with global markets and equipped with a high-class infrastructure for information and communication technology, which gives its citizens access to information, know-how and education
Every citizen is guaranteed a clean, healthy and safe environment with good maintenance. Environmental awareness is high among the citizens, within the public authorities and the private sector.
The housing market of Rwanda offers every family a dwelling of good size and standard at an affordable prize.
Rwanda is a leading centre of education and training, developing its own population and opening its doors to foreign students, researchers and lecturers.
Natural and cultural heritage is protected, preserved, made easily accessible and exposed to visitors from all over the world.
Tourism is a significant job-creating sector of the economy. Natural and cultural values are cornerstones and the country has international reputation as friendly, secure, well functioning, and offering good service.
Agricultural and forestry production are produced using soil, climate and water conditions in a sustainable way. Deforestation is combated successfully by means like preserving agricultural land, and preventing erosion by planting plant materials.
Rwanda has a modern, sustainable, safe and integrated transportation system, which benefits all members of society, the economy and the environment.
An effective and environmental friendly freight transport and distribution system supports economic development of Rwanda.
Water resources are used in a long-term sustainable way. Extraction of ground water does not exceed the amount being recharged and water management serves as a model for other countries.
Use of renewable energy resources is increasing. Citizens, companies and public authorities are aware of the importance of efficient energy use
Rwanda has a diversified economy, with a high share of income generated by non-agriculture sectors. Rwandan companies are globally competitive, and foreign businesses compete to locate their operations of Rwanda.
Legislation (proposed law on land use development and planning in Rwanda)
The main objective of this bill is to provide for the implementation of the Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan. Implementation requires both the uniform guidance on non-binding aspects and the regulation of binding aspects of coordinated, or, aligned and harmonized, land use and development planning in the Republic.
For the purpose of operationalising its main objective, five sub-objectives in the bill concern:
Setting of fundamental principles that will guide and bind land use and development planning in its administration and management context of associated processes and decisions, including those of physical planning and building in urban and rural areas; and,
Adoption of this bill as an ordinary law, ‘providing for national land use and development planning’ to implement the Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan in its above context and further defined interpretation incorporating provision for consideration and decision by:
District, City of Kigali or similarly entrusted administrative entity on an application for change of land use and development and,
The Land Commission at the national level when a district, City of Kigali or similarly entrusted administrative entity is submitted with an application for change of land use and development, which:
effects more than one district;
concerns a designated reserve in the Plan; or,
concerns large scale development;
Intervention by the Minister when:
An organ of state, district, City of Kigali or similarly entrusted administrative entity wishes to deviate from a binding designation of the Plan during its first five-year period of validation; or,
National interests of land use and development may be prejudiced by a decision of a land use regulator;
supervision, institution strengthening and capacity building; and,
Provision for the Ministers with land, housing and settlement, infrastructure, and local authority administration in their respective attributions to jointly:
order transitional status on a development plan, master plan or similar plan of whatever title of an administrative entity before such plan may be reviewed and revised by the entity and adopted as a land use plan, as part of an integrated development plan, to be co-ordinated with the Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan; and, amend the:
Degree Law on Urban Planning and Land to provide for enabling urban and rural physical planning regulation that compliments this Law, and is co-ordinated with the Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan; and,
Building Control Regulations 2009 to be complimented with specific, enabling, ‘deemed satisfied’ regulations for minor buildings in both urban and rural settings.
Grand National Objectives
The Rwanda Vision 2020, prepared in 2000, has the following overall objectives:
Reconstruction of the nation and its social capital anchored on good governance, underpinned by a capable state;
Transformation of agriculture into a productive, high value, market oriented sector, with forward linkages to other sectors;
Development of an efficient private sector spearheaded by competitiveness and entrepreneurship;
Comprehensive human resources development, encompassing education, health, and ICT skills. Aimed at public sector, private sector and civil society. To be integrated with demographic, health and gender issues;
Infrastructural development, entailing improved transport links, energy and water supplies and ICT networks
Promotion of regional economic integration and cooperation.
Main Goals for Sustainable Development
The overall vision for Rwanda is to achieve long-term sustainable development, i.e. “a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The vision thus implies economic growth as well as population growth comprising a social and ecological balance.
The following three basic goals are proposed for the land use and sub-land use planning and for the development of the country:
Economic competitiveness implies that the country offers good conditions for public and private companies to start up, grow and develop domestic and international competitiveness. This, in turn, requires that the residents have the will, competence and skill levels equal or better than in other countries. This requires access to relevant educational opportunities and research. Law and order should be enforced and the domestic and international competition should not be limited by corruption and favoritism.
Good and Equal Social Conditions
Rwandan citizens are relatively poor, in spite of active policies for reducing gaps in income distribution; wealth is not equally distributed within the country nor between different socio-economic groups.
Good and equal living conditions involve equal opportunities for working, living and acquiring an education in different parts of the country, as well as a healthy, safe and secure environment. This also implies that neither gender, age, ethnic background, physical resources, socio-economic nor geographic situation should limit people’s opportunities. Each geographical locale of Rwanda therefore, with different ecological, climatic and topographic characteristics will be encouraged to carry out activities that suit such conditions.
Sustainable Environment for improved living conditions
The environmental situation of Rwanda is satisfactory. The environmental resources of air, water and soil need improvement. Water resources are to a large degree conserved and well maintained. There are sufficient sanitation systems, the disposal of garbage and hazardous waste is at the brink of correction, desertification is being curbed.
Integrated District Development Planning
A modern concept for (Integrated) District Development Planning has to be introduced to harmonize with the National Plan and to match future demands for (equitable) service provision, (decentralized) economic development and (sustainable) environmental health realized through decentralized and participatory decision-making.
Equitable Distribution of Public Services over the Country
Coordination and cooperation between national sector authorities are needed to steer resources to achieve equitable (spatial) distribution of services and utilities. Use of modern technology such as GIS for spatial optimization is therefore recommended.
Implementation of De-concentration Urban Policy
The Umudugudu Policy needs an urban ‘sister’ to prevent accelerated and uncontrolled migration to existing urban areas, predominately Kigali City. This ‘Umujyi’ Policy aims to counteract unplanned habitation and the increase of informal settlements with poor services and unhealthy conditions. Rwanda is still a low urbanized country and has a unique opportunity to set the standards for sustainable urban development that most African countries fail to do at the moment. The next ten years will be crucial if Rwanda will be a success story in this respect.
Implementation of Sound Umudugudu Policy
Optimizing the use of rural land is vital to allow future generation to produce cash crops. Concentration of the rural scattered built up pattern into dense rural settlement will free fertile soil for agriculture production and at the same time will provide better accessibility to basic public services.
Implementation of Projects for Improved Agricultural Production
Efforts to reform the agriculture sector to move from subsistence to cash crop farming need to be supported by trade and economic incentives for the rural population.
Implementation of Projects for Increased Forestry Production
To balance need for forestry products, the area for forests needs to be increased in the future. Consequently, land unsuitable for agriculture high yields must be converted into forestry.
Implementation of Projects for Economic Development with Emphasis on Market Centre
To focus government resources on a selection of trading places would benefit the trade and exchange of goods between local and national market of cash crops.
Intensification of Mineral Deposit Exploitation
Rwanda has rich deposits of valuable minerals found all over the country. Exploitation will boost local development and create job opportunities for the rural population.
Implementation of Projects for Tourism Development
Rwanda is a safe country that can offer a diversity of tourist attractions. With increased international accessibility, the country has rich opportunities to welcome tourists that seek unique sceneries and exceptional experiences. There are many initiatives to boost tourism industry but more efforts need to be invested in realizing the intended benefits.
Exploitation and Supply of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Resources
Major environmentally friendly energy investments are needed in the near future to transform the land locked Rwanda into a society ready to battle with an alarming global climate change and to balance the ecological foot print.
Revitalization of Transportation System
Rehabilitation of the National Road Network, construction of the railway line from Isaka to Kigali/Goma and construction of the new international airport at Bugesera are the main pillars to increase international and national accessibility.
Conservation and Protection of Natural Biodiversity
The population of Rwanda must realize that exiting biodiversity is being challenged and learn how to be more resourceful to the fundaments for their existence. Legislation to guard sensitive areas is in place but must also be respected by the general public.
National Development Planning
Binding directives for land use changes of areas and hubs of national interest till 2020
All plans related to land use and development; physical planning, sector planning and other plans shall be prepared based on the Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan.
All government organs, including districts, City of Kigali or similarly entrusted administrative entities, shall follow the Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan.
All government organs, including the districts, City of Kigali or similarly entrusted administrative entities shall contribute in ensuring the implementation of Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan and provide views with respect to its elaboration and update.
Every district shall follow the National Land Use and Development Master Plan in preparation of district land use plan through the district development plan.
The demarcated areas and hubs of National Interest on the Map presenting the Final Plan (1:250,000) determine and designate the location and/or nature of guiding and binding land use development 2010-2020 and indicate that the specified land use has the highest priority in the concerned area and that other land uses have to respect that.
It also implies that the national sector (strategic) plans, (Integrated) District Development Plans and Urban Development Plans must show in an explicit way that they have observed the guiding and binding aspects of the Plan and the reasons behind.
Since the law was adopted by the parliament, the responsible authorities cannot propose, adopt or implement any land use in their plans that will be in conflict with the areas and hubs of national interest pointed out in the Final Plan,
Land use and infrastructure development influencing or connecting to neighboring districts should be coordinated, that is aligned and harmonized, before adoption/approval of the (Integrated) District Development Plans respectively.
Being the first of its kind for Rwanda, the 2010 version of the Plan will become a testing ground especially as regard to implement the directives at local level through 2012 revision of the District Development Plan.
District profiling is an attempt to present a comprehensive picture of development potential. The idea is that the information can guide both public and private investments utilizing this nature driven and manmade capacity for a specific District.
Rwanda is a small country as regards to the land area. From most District Centres it is not more than 3 hours drive to Kigali City. The ICT sector is busy to roll out a fiber optic network around the country which will make for example e-office a real opportunity in the near future.
With a determined and focused approach to improve (national) road system in combination with improved regional public transport, the District Centres will have comfortable access to the Kigali City.
District Development Planning
Integrated District Development Planning Concept
While the District Development Plans (DDPs) are well placed to be prioritization and implementation tools of the Plan, it is recommended that they be significantly improved to serve as adequate tools of good governance at local government level.
The Function of the IDDP
Integrated development planning is a means of improving the quality of people’s lives through the implementation of integrated and sustainable programs and projects. It is a cross-cutting process that seeks to co-ordinate and align all dimensions and sectors engaged in development by formulating integrated development strategies that are socially, economically and environmentally sustainable.
Characteristics of the IDDP
Integrated development planning should also function as a catalyst for wealth creation and distribution. It is intended to assist in the promotion of socio-economic development through providing a more predictable framework within which governmental, private or foreign investments will more easily be attracted. It will also facilitate the creation of a more investor-friendly environment and the promotion of local economic development
A Spatial Representation of the District is the Planning Platform
Spatially mapped existing conditions are an important basis for an implementation strategy because it quantifies data in ways that tabular data analysis cannot. Each district will have the ability to take this tabular data and map it based on sectors, service units, infrastructure elements, etc. for comparative analysis.
Through the Plan Project, NLC can now provide the District with current and enough detailed spatial data (Orthophotos and base map vector data) for development planning. The National Base Map produced for displays and analysis in the scale of 1:50,000, cropped for a District area will be a most useful map to visualize existing situation, needs, risks and suitability.
A Tool for Implementation of the National Land Use and Development Master Plan
The Plan presents binding directives and guiding principles for sustainable land use, which according to the accompanied new law should be adhered to in District Planning. GIS is a most useful tool for planning at local level and the areas and nodes of national interest can easily be transferred to a scale useful at the local level.
Transparency and public participation will be improved.
Because the participatory component of the opportunity and constraints analysis is so critical, a consistent framework for this exercise needs to be used so that the results of the analysis can be comparable. Detailed and systematized data should be provided on the dates these exercises occurred, how many people participated, and what sectors participated.
Integrated District development planning is intended to lay a new foundation for community-building, through inclusively creating a shared vision for the future development of the District area jurisdiction.
Mapping, prioritization, monitoring and funding of District Development Projects will be more transparent
Integrated development planning is also a strategic framework that is intended to improve District governance through aligning the financial resources and human capacity of the municipality with the implementation of strategies, programs and projects that aim to address the prioritized needs of the more deprived, while maintaining the existing infrastructure and economic activities in the municipality.
Capacity and manpower skills at District office
Today all existing District Development Plans have been made by consultants, unfortunately with very little transfer of knowledge included in the assignment. The result is that the poorly trained staff will not be able to use the DDP efficiently as a tool for monitoring and implementation.
Consequently there is a need for a capacity training program allowing the District to take control over planning, monitoring and implementing tasks. The overall objectives are to give all levels of decision makers (strategic/executive, managerial and operational) quick and simple digital access to the organization’s information in a spatial (map enabled) context.
Imidugudu – Rural Settlement Policy
Studies during Plan preparation reveal that there is confusion regarding the implementation of the Imidugudu Policy. Knowing the ambitious target of Vision 2020 that 70% of the total population will be settled in identified rural settlements the following issues of concerns can be notified:
The current progress report is unreliable due to inconsistent basic data;
The central government database shows villages situated/proposed in protected areas.
The proposal is to make a fresh start by ensuring the following:
The Imidugudu Policy implementation should be a mandatory task for the new DDP, called Integrated District Development Plan. As the first step MINALOC will provide updated locational and attribute data of the villages regarding population services and utilities etc.
The IDDP will propose a prioritized set of new villages using available spatial data (District Base map and Orthophotos) based on needs assessments and risk and suitability analysis.
After adoption of the IDDP the data on existing and proposed villages will be forward to central authorities for national compilation.
An Action Area Plan (AAP) will be prepared for each village including a homestead reallocation catchment analysis and applying modern planning principles regarding building density and non-polarized residential land use.
The AAP will be used in the consultation process with the target group – the farmer families that will benefit from moving into the village.
Urban Development Planning
Urbanization in Rwanda
In slightly more than 70 years, Rwanda’s population has increased more than five times, from 1,595,500 in 1934, to 9,344,399 persons in 2007. Following the 1978 and 1991 censuses, urban population increased on average by 5.5 % per year. The urban demographic mass is concentrated to Kigali City with more than 800,000 persons.
This spontaneous or uncontrolled urbanization has led to a twofold process of increased density and degradation of areas found near urban centres and of dispersed peri-urban habitat - all which bring about expensive outreach service and infrastructure (Urbanization Policy, 2007).
Need for a ‘Deconcentrated’ Urban Policy – ‘Umujyi’
Rwanda is characterized by low but accelerating urbanization. This has happened in a rapid and uncoordinated manner, meaning that social services and employment opportunities are lagging behind. From now until 2020, each District Centre needs regularly updated urban development plans.
The country needs to develop basic infrastructure in urban centres and in other development poles, enabling the decongestion of agricultural zones. The proportion of those living in urban areas will increase from 10% in 2000 to 30% in 2020 (from 5% in 1995).
The income differential between towns and rural areas should remain within reasonable proportions, due to the decentralization of economic activities to the country.
However, resources are limited and it is assumed that not all District Centers can be given public means to emerge into a functional urban centre during the planning horizon and step up to become an alternative for a continuous and sustainable allocation of resources to Kigali.
The DCs that do not fall within the priority number are proposed to be on the agenda at Plan’s update 2015 and revision 2020.
Two types of the prioritized District Centres, 11 in all, can be distinguished. The ones that already have attracted private investors and private initiatives. In this case not much public initiatives are needed rather than to steer the private investments so it conforms to the Plan’s concept for optimal utilization of land resources to achieve sustainable development.
The following features are proposed for a modern District centre by year 2020:
An Urban Development Plan (UDP) shall be prepared for the layout of the District Centre, consulted and approved following the guidelines in the Plan,
Location: The Centre shall be located on non fertile soil and no permanent buildings will be allowed on slopes more than 20 degrees or where flooding occurs.
Population: The Centre should accommodate more than 10,000 inhabitants and correspond to about 30 % of the respective District total population by 2020.
Housing: Areas of Low, medium and (moderate) high residential density should be zoned for in a mixed context.
Education: (At least) One tertiary education facility: University branch, technical collage, etc. should be located in the Centre.
Health: A district hospital shall provide secondary health services to the Centre and the District population.
Administration: District office with an inviting and ‘transparent’ architectural design and a multi-purpose community hall should be found in the District Centre.
Commercial: A pedestrian friendly shopping area with a market place should be centrally located in the Centre.
Culture, sport and recreation: A sport and recreation area shall be zoned, accommodating an arena for sports and culture, swimming pool and creative playground. A multi-purposed hall shall be constructed for major cultural and official events.
Protection: A District court, a District police station and a fire station would e the basis for a secure and safe living environment for the Centre and the District as a whole.
Industrial: Areas with non-polluting small-scale industries should be included to have self-self sufficient production of basic goods and exploiting local human and natural resources found specifically in the district..
Transportation: Regular public transport with gas powered vehicles shall be provided for the inhabitants. A bus terminal for regional public transportation should be zoned for at a conflict free location.
ICT. The Centre shall be provided with a fiber optic network.
Energy: The Centre shall be connected with the national electrical grid. Local energy production: Biogas, hydro, solar panels, etc.
Water: Potable water will be distributed to all due via pipes or water posts. Rain water harvesting shall be a mandatory requirement for construction of new housing.
Sewerage: A functional system built-up offers good hygienic standard shall be provided..
Solid waste: A landfill area with a biogas digester and a recycle centre shall be located in an environmentally safe place.
LAND USE PLANNING GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS
National Land Use Guidelines 2020
The Final Plan serves as a guide for future land use and infrastructure development towards year 2020. More detailed analyses and demarcations are made in Integrated District Development Plans, Urban Development Plan and Environmental Impact Assessments.
The demarcated Areas and Hubs of National Interest on the Final Plan (1:250,000) indicate that the specified land use has the highest priority in the areas and that other land uses have to respect that.
All urban areas should be planned, densified for residential and other land uses including necessary social and commercial services, open spaces and green areas and be supplied with roads, water and sewerage networks.
New development other than for agricultural use should be restricted in agricultural areas, in order to preserve valuable agricultural land. For farm houses, alternative sustainable solutions for technical infrastructure should be encouraged.
Forests should be preserved and new forests should be established and irrigated with treated waste water when possible. Forests should be accessible for recreation. Penalty should be paid for littering and illegal cutting.
New development should be restricted within a 100 metres zone along water bodies (lakes and rivers. Only recreational development should be permitted and penalty should be paid for littering.
It is recommended that all protected areas have a buffer zone to prevent further degradation by restricting proximity.
Land should be reserved for quarying of minerals and complementary activities away from residential areas.
Land should be reserved to fulfill the needs for heavy industry, freight terminals, plants and technical supply. New residential development should not be permitted in industrial areas, in order not to impose obstacles to industrial land use. Attention should be given to protect surrounding areas from negative environmental impact.
Only development related to transportation should be permitted in airport areas and be supplied with sufficient technical infrastructure. The height of structures should be restricted in the vicinity of airports.
Reserves should be used for a sufficient network of international, national and district roads. When planning for changed land use within the designated area, attention should be paid to the preconditions for the expansion and functioning of the road system and its interplay with local road system within urban areas.
Railway, Metro and Rail-bound Intersection
Reserves should be used for railway, metro and intersections. When planning for changed land use within the designated area, attention should be paid to the preconditions for the functioning of the rail-bound system and their interplay with urban areas.
Electric Transmission Line, Electric Transmission Sub-station
Reserves should be used for electrical transmission lines, sub-stations and power plants. When planning for changed land use within the designated area, attention should be paid to the preconditions for the functioning of the electrical supply system and its interplay with urban areas and settlements.
Telecom and Fiber Network
Reserves should be used for telecom and fiber networks and installations. When planning for changed land use within the designated area, attention should be paid to the preconditions for the functioning of the electrical supply system and its interplay with urban areas and settlements.
Gas and Oil Pipeline
Reserves should be used for gas pipelines, oil and condensate pipelines and oil product pipelines. When planning for changed land use within the designated area, attention should be paid to the preconditions for the functioning of the transmission system.
To be continued