Your respiratory system includes your lungs and the airways through which air travels as it moves from your nose or mouth into your lungs. While there aren't really specific vitamins and minerals that you need especially to maintain the respiratory system, the system benefits from an overall healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables
Iron is the closest thing to a specific vitamin or mineral need that the respiratory system has. You need iron in order to build the protein hemoglobin that forms red blood cells, explains Dr. Lauralee Sherwood in her book "Human Physiology." Red blood cells, in turn, carry oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues. Without sufficient iron, you can't move the oxygen you inhale through the bloodstream, which renders the respiratory system incapable of doing its job.
Foods rich in iron include animal protein, as well as leafy greens like spinach help. Your body increases its iron absorption if you take some vitamin C -- or eat vitamin C-containing foods -- at the same time. On the other hand, while calcium is good for all your body cells, it inhibits iron absorption, so avoid taking calcium supplements at the same time that you eat iron-rich foods.
Because your lungs are exposed to environmental toxins and pollutants on a regular basis, the cells may be more likely than others to experience damage to their genetic material, or DNA. While there's no food that will prevent cancer due to DNA damage, antioxidant chemicals -- which are found in high concentrations in brightly colored fruits and vegetables -- help your cells prevent and repair damage to their genetic material. For this reason, a diet high in fruits and vegetables can benefit your respiratory cells.